Acharya Sushruta described 8 types of surgical procedures viz.; Chedana (excision), Bhedana (incision), Lekhana (scrapping), Aharana (extraction), Vedhana (puncturing), Eshana (probing), Sivana (stitching) and Parasurgical procedures (surgery without knife).
- Nasa Sandhana (Rhinoplasty): This is reconstructive surgery of nose first mentioned by Sushruta and established as a milestone in the field of plastic surgery.
- Karna Sandhana (Lobuloplasty): Reconstructive surgeries of ear lobule in the various defects either caused by congenital or traumatic reasons.15 techniques of repair of torn ear lobules (lobuloplasty) have been given by Acharya Sushruta.
- Ostha Sandhana (Repair of hare lip): The description of repair of deformed lip is given in the same chapter as such as given for nasa sandhana.
- Karna vedhana (Ear puncture): The piercing of ear lobes of children with a needle or awl on an auspicious day and time with hymn is known as karna vedhana samskar (custom).
- Anorectal surgical techniques: Different types of incisions to remove fistulous tract such as Langalaka (T-shaped), Ardhalangalak (L-shaped), Sarvatobhadrak (circular), Gotirthak (half-moon), Kharjurpatrak (serrated).
- Urological techniques: Varieties of stones and method of extraction (by perineal lithotomy) and operative complications have been given in detail in Sushruta Samhita. Post-operative wound management may be the first reference of surgical management of calculus in history of surgery.
- GIT procedures: Intestinal sutures for Baddhagudodara, chhidrodara (perforated intestines), injuries to ashaya (abdomen) are also described along with their management in Sushruta Samhita.
- Asthisandhi bhagna chikitsa (Management of fracture/displacement of bones and joints)
- Parasurgical procedures: Acharya Sushruta advocated certain minimally invasive techniques like kshara karma, agnikarma, raktamokshana, etc. which can be adopted in patients who are unfit for surgery or can be adopted as a supplement to surgical procedures.
What are the advantages of Ayurvedic Surgery?
- Asukriya karanat–Immediate/early cure
Some minimally invasive surgical procedures like Ksara, agni etc can provide relief from the symptoms at the earliest and are also able to cure the disease within short duration. When managed by medicines, these diseases may require long period for management.
- Different therapies
Depending on the disease, therapeutic necessity, type of patient etc. various minimally invasive surgical techniques like Ksharakarma (eg. Arshas or piles), Ksharasutra (eg. Nadi vrana, Bhagandra (sinus and fistula), Agnikarma (eg. Grdhrasi (sciatica), Kadara (corn), Raktamoksana (Vranasopha (inflammation), Kushta (skin problems), etc can be successfully used.
- Complete eradication of Diseases
Diseases managed by ayurvedic surgery are completely eradicated thus recurrence of disease is all together halted.
- In Emergency situation
When the condition of the patient is fast deteriorating or if medicines are unable to provide relief, surgery is indicated which provides immediate comfort to the patient viz., as in chidrodara (perforation of intestines), mutrajathara (retention of urine) etc.
- Traumatic condition
Humans suffer from numerous discomforts due to trauma ranging from a wound to fractures and dislocations, perforation of intestines etc. Shalya tantra (Ayurvedic surgery)provides detailed information regarding the proper management of these conditioned and thus protects the life of the patient.
- Since the suffering humankind is provided immediate, early and sure relief with no change of recurrence; the practitioners of this science are sure to be enriched with name, fame and wealth.
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